AI – Artificial Insemination: semen is introduced through the cow’s cervix by a trained technician   

APHA – Animal and Plant Health Agency: governing body tasked with protecting the health and welfare of animals

AVArtificial Vagina: tool used to collect semen from a bull and ram

BCS – Body Conditioning Score: numeric score to estimate body energy reserves in the cow

CIDR – Controlled Internal Drug Release: device which releases progesterone to allow control of a cow’s oestrus cycle   

DFR – Dominant Follicle Reduction: procedure implemented during the stimulation process whereby a needle is used to remove the biggest follicles which can have an inhibitory effect on other follicles

Degenerate embryo – A fertilised embryo that  is dead or dying embryo and is deemed unsuitable for embryo transfer or freezing

Heat Oestrus – Stage in the oestrus cycle where the oocyte is released from the ovary; occurs every 18 to 24 days

IVF – In Vitro Fertilisation: stage within the IVP process whereby oocytes are fertilised with semen in a laboratory

IVP – In Vitro Production: entire process including oocyte collection and maturation (TVR/OPU), IVF, and embryo culture to produce embryos within a specialised laboratory

FSH – Follicle Stimulating Hormone: hormone given to cows to stimulate production of many oocytes

Follicle– fluid filled cavity in the ovary containing one oocyte. An ovary contains multiple follicles are any given stage of the oestrus cycle

Metritis – Inflammation of the wall of the uterus

MOET – Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer, also known as flushing

Oocyte – unfertilised egg produced by cows. Collected and fertilised by semen to produce an embryo

OPU – Ovum Pick Up: stage in IVP whereby oocytes are collected from the multiple follicles on an ovary

P1 – One Ai doses of semen per Pellet

P2 – Two Ai doses of semen per Pellet

Semen straw – Contains enough semen to Ai one animal

Progesterone/Prostaglandin – Naturally occurring hormones which allow control of the oestrus cycle when applied externally

SpongeSynchronisation of oestrus and ovulation in sheep

Stimulation/Super Ovulation – Process of injecting reproductive hormones to improve oocyte quality or number by promoting follicle growth

UFO – Unfertilised Embryo

TVR – Trans Vaginal Recovery: process by which OPU is carried out in cows